The Institute was established in 1983 in accordance with the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR №807 “On further development of new areas of biology and biotechnology”, the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR № 121 from 24.01.1983, the resolution of Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR № 83 from 22.02.1983 and the resolution of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR № 40 from 17.03.1983 for the development of modern areas biology in Kazakhstan.
The Institute is a founder in Kazakhstan of molecular biology (1968), bioengineering – genetic and cellular engineering (1986), molecular genetics (1989) and molecular medicine (1990), space biology and biotechnology (1991), molecular immunology (1997), ethno-and paleogenomics (1999), molecular algology and plastic engineering (2015).
The founder and the first Director of the Institute was a talented scientist and organizer of science, President of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR — Murat Abenovich Aitkhozhin. In 1968 he founded the first laboratory of molecular biology in Kazakhstan – protein and nucleic acids. The discovery of a new class of intracellular particles – informosomes – M.A. Aitkhozhin was awarded the Lenin prize in 1976. From 1988 to 2019, the Institute was headed by Nagima Abenovna Aitkhozhina – an outstanding scientist, academician of NAS RK. Due to her innovative qualities and scientific developments of the leading scientists of the Institute, a leading research center in Kazakhstan on molecular biology and genetics, molecular medicine and immunology, biochemistry and biotechnology was formed. Since February 2019, the Institute is headed by Sharipov Kamalidin Orynbaevich — Doctor of biological Sciences, Professor.