- Direction “Biologically active substances of plant origin – low molecular bioregulators of the eukaryotic genome expression”, which has become a priority for Kazakhstan scientists. New highly effective inhibitors of plant origin have been identified for studying the biosynthesis of protein, RNA and DNA: narcein, homochartingtognin, cytisine, caffeine and its analogues, spartein. The biological properties of the amino acid and peptide analogs of colchicine and colchamin are synthesized and investigated.
- A new mobile element which is directly related to the mechanisms of regulation and transposition is described in the Triticum timofeevii
- DNA clone library of protective response genes of Kazakhstan wheat varieties (the chitinase of three classes, 1,3-β-gluconase, oxalate oxidase, Lr10 and Lr21) was created and the features of their structural organization of functionally significant sites for use in practical plant breeding and genetic engineering were studied.
- For the first time the gene of class I chitinase of the 19th family of glycosyl hydrolases ChitSt15 has been cloned from Stepnaya-15 Kazakhstan wheat variety. Structural features of the cloned gene were studied and a globular model of the pChitSt15 protein was constructed using bioinformatic analysis methods.
- Molecular genetic certification of kazakh selection/breeding varieties from the collection of the gene pool department of Kazakh scientific research institute of agriculture and plants (KazSRIAP), Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan was carried out in order to identify carrier-varieties of “zero” alleles of the waxy genes and the Gpc-B1 gene resistant to leaf rust, septoria and yellow leaf spot.
- The foundations of molecular and population human genetics in Kazakhstan, molecular medicine are laid, which allow to establish the mechanisms of the occurrence of hereditary diseases (atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, multiple sclerosis) and their geno-diagnostics, which have significant fundamental and practical importance. DNA polymorphisms were identified, point mutations were localized, and nucleotide substitutions of the apoA, apoB, apoC, pai-1, lpl and pon1 genes, the angiotensinogen (AT) genes and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes in three populations were identified. Inter-ethnic differences in DNA polymorphism are shown.
- Candidate genes, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, FOXP3, TGF-β, changes in which lead to the development of a neurodegenerative disease – multiple sclerosis were studied.
- The molecular genetic analysis of the DNA of the mummified remains of people who lived in the territory of the modern Kazakh Altai 2.5 thousand years ago was performed. A comparative analysis of individual sections of the D-loop and polymorphism of the V-region of the mitochondrial DNA of the modern population of Kazakhs, ancient people and the world GenBank showed that modern Kazakhs and their supposed ancestors have Mongoloid and Caucasoid components with a difference in their ratios. The obtained results are important as fundamental knowledge about the features of the genetic structure of the modern Kazakh ethnic group, which allows us to consider the issues of intra-ethnic differentiation.
- Molecular biological certification of different populations of the Semirechensk salamander Ranodon sibiricus, saker falcon Falco cherrug and its hybrids with gyrfalcon and peregrine falcon, eagles Aquila chrysaetos, mountain sheep Ovis ammon, ephedra horsetail Ephedra equisetina was carried out.
- The first space biology and biotechnology program in Kazakhstan was developed, which was implemented in the flights of Kazakhstan cosmonauts T. Aubakirov, T. Mussabaev, a number of Russian crews and subsequent experiments on Earth. A program of scientific experiments of Kazakhstan astronauts ‘Gharysh’ was developed for implementation onboard of the International Space Station. Currently, the main research directions of the laboratory are:
- Functional genomics and plants genetic engineering;
- Molecular epidemiology, population and evolutionary genetics of microorganisms;
Functional genomics and plant genetic engineering:
- Cis-genic transformation method of wheat and potatoes was adapted.
- For the first time in the Republic of Kazakhstan, using the method of cis-genic transfer, transformation of 2 types of soft wheat Saratovskaya 29 and Kazakhstanskaya 19 was carried out. 29 lines of soft wheat with chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase genes were obtained. Regeneration efficiency were assessed for each variety.
- As a result of the ballistic transformation of potato callus cultures, 56 regenerated plants of the Aksor and Nevsky varieties were obtained.
- A sample preparation scheme for plant samples was developed, which can be used in in-line experiments to conduct large-scale screening of plants for resistance to phytopathogens.
- A PCR technology-based procedure has been developed for diagnosing fusarium contaminatio.
Molecular epidemiology, population and evolutionary genetics of microorganisms.
- Collections of circulating strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their DNA (n> 1500) have been created. A system for assigning unique codes for DNA samples, bacterial cultures and biological source material has been developed. Algorithms for genetic differentiation of Kazakhstani isolates of tuberculosis were developed, including alternative VNTR typing panels. An information database of genetic profiles of M. tuberculosis strains has been created. Reagent kits for molecular genetic certification of mycobacterial isolates were developed and protocols for high-throughput screening in 96- and 384-well plate formats were created.
- The genetic diversity of the Kazakhstan population of tuberculosis strains was analyzed.
- A new tuberculosis genetic family named KAZ-1 has been identified.
- A full genomic analysis of Kazakhstani Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of various genotypes (Beijing, LAM, NEW-1, KAZ-1) and deletion polymorphism analysis by RD181, RD122, RD174, RD-Rio, RD115 was carried out.
- Detection of a LAM RD-Rio subline strain in Kazakhstan was described for the first time, with its probable drift to Kazakhstan from the Russian Federation, and not directly from South America or South/Western Europe.
- Using the TB TEST biological chip system (BIOCHIP-IMB LLC) for the first time, a wide range of genetic determinants of drug resistance to first and second row drugs for 400 Kazakhstani M. tuberculosis strains of various genotypes was established, which replenished fundamental knowledge and will serve further practical purposes. The obtained data correspond to the results of bacteriological tests and Hain GenoType MTBDRplus.
- Collections of isolates and DNA, as well as a database of genetic profiles of Kazakhstani isolates of Brucella spp. Based on the results obtained, reagent kits and a standard operating procedure for lab-based molecular genetic differentiation of Brucella spp strains were developed.
- Using a panel of 16 loci, manual MLVA genotyping of 428 Brucella spp isolates was performed. and the MLVA 16 method was optimized for genotyping on an automatic capillary analyzer. All the data obtained supplemented the electronic database of isolate passports.